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A Lens is a type of mirror which refracts the light instead of reflection. Refraction is the bending of a light when it enters a medium. Here the medium is Lens. Youtube - Hindi. Lens are of various types but the two most important types are convex on Bi-convex and concave or Bi-concave lens Convex lens are thicker in middle than the edges whereas concave lens are thinner at the middle than at the edges Lenses are transparent and light can pass through them.
CBSE Revision Notes for class 12 Chemistry
Convex lens are also called convergent as they concentrate bend inward the light falling on it. Concave lens are also called divergent lens as they expand the light bend outward falling on it. Real images are formed using convex lens by placing them in between the object and the screen.
Virtual images are also formed by convex lens which is erect and larger in size. Concave lens do not form real images. They only form virtual images which are always erect and smaller in size. Applications of lens include magnifying glass, telescopes, contact lens, cameras etc. Class 7 Physics Light.Youtube - Hindi. The monomers used are unsaturated compounds, e. This mode of polymerisation leading to an increase in chain length or chain growth can take place through the formation of either free radicals or ionic species.
However, the free radical governed addition or chain growth polymerisation is the most common mode. Free Radical Mechanism :- Many of alkenes or dienes and their derivatives are polymerized in the presence of a free radical catalyst like benzoyl peroxide.
The process starts with the addition of phenyl free radical formed by the peroxide to the Ethene double bond thus generating a new and larger free radical.
This step is called chain initiating step. As this radical reacts with another molecule of Ethene, another bigger sized radical is formed. The repetition of this sequence with new and bigger radicals carries the reaction forward and the step is termed as chain propagating step. Ultimately, at some stage the product radical thus formed reacts with another radical to form the polymerised product. This step is called the chain terminating step.
Chain terminating step. Class 12 Chemistry Polymers. Types of Polymerization Reactions.Unit cell in two dimensional and three dimensional lattices, calculation of density of unit cell, packing in solids, packing efficiency, voids, number of atoms per unit cell in a cubic unit cell, point defects, electrical and magnetic properties. Band theory of metals, conductors, semiconductors and insulators and n and p type semiconductors.
Download CBSE Revision Notes for CBSE Class 12 Chemistry Solutions Types of solutions, expression of concentration of solutions of solids in liquids, solubility of gases in liquids, solid solutions, colligative properties - relative lowering of vapour pressure, Raoult's law, elevation of boiling point, depression of freezing point, osmotic pressure, determination of molecular masses using colligative properties, abnormal molecular mass, Van't Hoff factor.
Download CBSE Revision Notes for CBSE Class 12 Chemistry Electrochemistry Redox reactions, conductance in electrolytic solutions, specific and molar conductivity, variations of conductivity with concentration, Kohlrausch's Law, electrolysis and law of electrolysis elementary ideadry cell-electrolytic cells and Galvanic cells, lead accumulator, EMF of a cell, standard electrode potential, Nernst equation and its application to chemical cells, Relation between Gibbs energy change and EMF of a cell, fuel cells, corrosion.
Download CBSE Revision Notes for CBSE Class 12 Chemistry Chemical Kinetics Rate of a reaction Average and instantaneousfactors affecting rate of reaction: concentration, temperature, catalyst; order and molecularity of a reaction, rate law and specific rate constant,integrated rate equations and half life only for zero and first order reactionsconcept of collision theory elementary idea, no mathematical treatment.
Activation energy, Arrhenious equation. Download CBSE Revision Notes for CBSE Class 12 Chemistry Surface Chemistry Adsorption - physisorption and chemisorption, factors affecting adsorption of gases on solids, catalysis, homogenous and heterogenous activity and selectivity; enzyme catalysis colloidal state distinction between true solutions, colloids and suspension; lyophilic, lyophobic multi-molecular and macromolecular colloids; properties of colloids; Tyndall effect, Brownian movement, electrophoresis, coagulation, emulsion - types of emulsions.
Group 16 Elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, oxidation states, occurrence, trends in physical and chemical properties, dioxygen: Preparation, Properties and uses, classification of Oxides, Ozone, Sulphur -allotropic forms; compounds of Sulphur: Preparation Properties and uses of Sulphur-dioxide, Sulphuric Acid: industrial process of manufacture, properties and uses; Oxoacids of Sulphur Structures only.
Group 17 Elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, oxidation states, occurrence, trends in physical and chemical properties; compounds of halogens, Preparation, properties and uses of Chlorine and Hydrochloric acid, interhalogen compounds, Oxoacids of halogens structures only.
Group 18 Elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, trends in physical and chemical properties, uses. Download CBSE Revision Notes for CBSE Class 12 Chemistry The d- and f- Block Elements General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence and characteristics of transition metals, general trends in properties of the first row transition metals - metallic character, ionization enthalpy, oxidation states, ionic radii, colour, catalytic property, magnetic properties, interstitial compounds, alloy formation, preparation and properties of K2Cr2O7 and KMnO4.
Lanthanoids - Electronic configuration, oxidation states, chemical reactivity and lanthanoid contraction and its consequences. Actinoids - Electronic configuration, oxidation states and comparison with lanthanoids.
Bonding, Werner's theory, VBT, and CFT; structure and stereoisomerism, importance of coordination compounds in qualitative inclusion, extraction of metals and biological system. Haloarenes: Nature of C—X bond, substitution reactions Directive influence of halogen in monosubstituted compounds only. Uses and environmental effects of - dichloromethane, trichloromethane, tetrachloromethane, iodoform, freons, DDT. Download CBSE Revision Notes for CBSE Class 12 Chemistry Alcohols Phenols and Ethers Alcohols: Nomenclature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties of primary alcohols onlyidentification of primary, secondary and tertiary alcohols, mechanism of dehydration, uses with special reference to methanol and ethanol.
Phenols: Nomenclature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties, acidic nature of phenol, electrophillic substitution reactions, uses of phenols. Ethers: Nomenclature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties, uses. Carboxylic Acids: Nomenclature, acidic nature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties; uses. Cyanides and Isocyanides - will be mentioned at relevant places in text.
Diazonium salts:Preparation, chemical reactions and importance in synthetic organic chemistry. Proteins -Elementary idea of - amino acids, peptide bond, polypeptides, proteins, structure of proteins - primary, secondary, tertiary structure and quaternary structures qualitative idea onlydenaturation of proteins; enzymes.
Hormones - Elementary idea excluding structure. Vitamins -Classification and functions. Download CBSE Revision Notes for CBSE Class 12 Chemistry Polymers Classification - natural and synthetic, methods of polymerization addition and condensationcopolymerization, some important polymers: natural and synthetic like polythene, nylon polyesters, bakelite, rubber.
Biodegradable and non-biodegradable polymers.Checkout "EF Pendrives", with life time validity at the lowest price in market. Youtube - Hindi. Learn from Home without Internet. View More. Our Students Love us. Watched all the 45 parts! Before i started watching i didnt even basics of integration! But when I started watching these videos i could do problems on integration! Thank u exam fear for all these videos! You are the best.
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In plants, the vegetative parts of the body of the plant called as vegetative propagules give rise to new offspring. Example- runner, rhizome of ginger, suckers of chrysanthemum, offset of water hyacinth, bulb of onion, eyes of potato can give rise to new offspring.
Vegetative propagules develop from some other specialized parts present in the vegetative propagules. As the progenies arise from a single parent, the progenies do not show genetic variation and do not contribute to evolution. Youtube - Hindi. Class 12 Biology Reproduction In Organisms Asexual reproduction The reproduction in which an offspring is produced by single parent without the fusion of gametes is called asexual reproduction.
A single parent produces offspring and the off springs are exact copies of their parents. The off springs are genetically and morphologically similar and are referred to as clones.
Characteristics of asexual reproduction A single parent is involved and so no fusion of gametes. Only mitosis takes place. Rapid multiplication. Modes of asexual reproduction Binary fission- the parent body divides in to two equal halves and each half grows in to an adult.
Example- Amoeba, Paramecium. Example- yeast Fig. Vegetative propagation- In plants, the vegetative parts of the body of the plant called as vegetative propagules give rise to new offspring Example- runner, rhizome of ginger, suckers of chrysanthemum, offset of water hyacinth, bulb of onion, eyes of potato can give rise to new offspring.
Class 12 Biology Reproduction In Organisms. Asexual reproduction.Intro to Phrase and Clause. Direct Indirect Speech. Subject Predicate. Active Passive Voice. Electrostatic Potential. Current Electricity. Electromagnetic Induction. Alternating Current. Electromagnetic Waves. Wave Optics. Semiconductor Electronics.
Communication Systems. Electric Circuits. The Solid State. Chemical Kinetics. Surface Chemistry. Isolation of Elements.
The P-Block Elements. Coordination Compounds. Chemistry In Everyday Life. Inverse Trigonometric Functions. Application of Derivatives. Application of Integrals. Differential Equations. Vector Algebra. Three Dimensional Geometry. Linear Programming. Reproduction In Organisms. Sexual Reproduction In Plants. Human Reproduction.
Reproductive Health.Download revision notes for Excretory Products and their Elimination class 11 Notes Biology and score high in exams. These are the Excretory Products and their Elimination class 11 Notes Biology prepared by team of expert teachers. The revision notes help you revise the whole chapter in minutes.
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The flow of blood in two limbs of vasa recta increase the osmolarity towards the inner medullary interstitium in the inner medulla. Micturition — The process of expulsion of urine from the urinary bladder is called micturition. The neural mechanism that causes it is called micturition reflex. Urine formed in nephron is stored in urinary bladder till a voluntary signal is given by CNS.
This initiates the contraction of smooth muscles of the bladder and simultaneous relaxation of the urethral sphincter causing the release of urine. Excretory Products and their Elimination class 11 Notes Biology.How To Overcome Exam Fear? - How to Overcome Exam Stress? - Exam Fear - Letstute
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